FACTS: 10 Facts About King NARMER

by Scott Peters, author of Secret of the Egyptian Curse and Mystery of the Egyptian Scroll

Menes or King Narmer


The King known as Pharaoh Narmer


Exact details about King Narmer are sometimes
vague and lost or confused in the mists of time.

Here are ten facts that we know right now:

  1. King Narmer (First Dynasty, c. 3150 BCE) reigned during the Early Dynastic Period. Narmer may also be the same person as Menes. Menes may simply be Narmer's honorific title. Menes means "He who endures."
  2. King Narmer appears to have come into power after King Scorpion.
  3. King Narmer is credited with uniting Egypt into one single, peaceful Kingdom. Until then, they'd been divided into Lower Egypt (the Nile Delta region in the North that was primarily rural and agricultural) and Upper Egypt (the Nile Valley region in the South, whose culture and cities were more developed).
Narmer palette
Two-sided Narmer Palette
Carved from a single piece of flat gray-green siltstone.







  • The Narmer Palette pictured above (found at Hierakonpolis) is a two-sided carved stone tablet that depicts Narmer’s accomplishment. On one side of the Narmer Palette, Narmer is shown sacrificing the defeated in a ceremony. On the opposite side, he wears the two crowns of Egypt at once, having merged them together to form a single crown called the Pschent or 'double crown'.
    Egyptian double crown
    Double crown (Pschent)
    The White Crown of Upper Egypt sits inside
    the Red Crown of Lower Egypt
  • Narmer developed significant trade with nearby southern Canaan, as well as other neighboring countries. Archaeologists have dug up pottery shards inscribed with Narmer's name all across North Africa and the nearby regions.
  • According to scholars, Narmer founded the ancient Egyptian capital of Memphis. The remains of the white-walled city can be found today near the pyramids and modern day city of Cairo. It is said that Narmer constructed a lake at Memphis that was fed by the Nile river, which would have been a great feat of engineering.
  • Up until 2016, it was believed that Narmer married a princess named Neithhotep “Foremost of Women” in a politically motivated union to help seal the new alliance of Upper and Lower Egypt. Narmer was from Upper Egypt, and it appeared Neithhotep was from Lower Egypt. This marriage, however, has been disproved. Neithhotep was a queen regent and possibly one of Hor-Aha’s wives.
  • Religion flourished during Narmer's reign and symbols such as the Ankh (symbol of life), and the Djed pillar (a four-tiered pillar that represents stability) became popular. New astronomical instruments were developed during this time as well.
  • Narmer presided over a time of growth for urban city life, as well as a period when large building projects were being undertaken. The foundation for the future Kingdoms was being laid.
    King Narmer tomb
    Are these two pits King Narmer's tomb? Possibly.





  • Despite Narmer's accomplishments, the tomb believed to be his burial site is quite modest compared to those of other pharaohs. His simple tomb consists of nothing more than two small joined chambers.

  • Top 10 Facts About King Narmer

    1. Narmer - First Dynasty, c. 3150 BCE
    2. Narmer’s predecessor: King Scorpion
    3. He united Upper and Lower Egypt
    4. He wears both crowns on the Narmer Palette
    5. Developed trade with other countries
    6. Founded the capital, Memphis
    7. Marriage to Neithhotep debunked in 2016
    8. Religion flourished during his reign
    9. Presided over a time of urban growth
    10. Buried in a surprisingly modest tomb


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